Diarrhoea & Constipation

Diarrhoea is the frequent possage of loose stools.

  • Normal bowel movement frequent ranges from 3 times daily to once every 3 days
  • High volume diarrhoea (>IL Penday) occurs when stool water content is increased (the principal site of water absorbtion being the colon)
  • Secreatory due to intestinal inflammation eg : infection or unflammatory bowel diseases.
  • Osmotic due to malabsorption adverse drug effects or motility.
  • Steatorrhoea us diarrhoea associated with fat malabsorption.The stools are qreasy,pale and bulky and float .
  • Low volume diarrhoea is associated with the irritable bowel syndrome.The diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome is based on a pattern of GI symptoms.
  • Abdominal blooting , dyspepsia symptoms and often Non alimentary symptoms commonly accompany irritable bowel syndrome.


    • Infective Gastroenteritis (clostridium difficult
    • Drugs (especially antibiotics)


    • IBS
    • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
    • Parasetic Infestation, Eg
      1. Achalasia Cardia
      2. Amoetriasis
      3. Cryptosponidiu
    • Colorectal Cancer
    • Autoimmune Neuropathy
    • Laxative Abuse and other dry therapies
    • Hyperthyrodism
    • Constipation and faecal Umpaction
    • Small bowel or colonic uesection
    • Mal absorption lactose deficiency Celiac Disease.
    • CBC
    • Stool test
    • Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy
  • Maintain hydration
  • T/T Antibiotics
  • Zinc Supplements
  • Rehydration with IV Fluids
  • Nutrients rich foods

Constipation is the infrequent passage of hard stools or may be due to umpaired colonic motility, physical obstruction, compared rectal suesation or anorectal dysfunction causing anismus impaired process of evacuation.
Absolute constipation (nogas or bowel movement) suggest intestinal obstruction and is curely to be associated with pain, vomiting and destruction.

Tenesmus the sensation of needing to defecate asthocycle rectum is empty suggest,Rectal Inflammation or tumor.

  • Lack of fabricdiet
  • IBS
  • Intestinal Obstruction (Cancer)
  • Drugs (Opioids iron)
  • Metabolic/Endocrine hypothyroidism / hyper calcemia
  • Immobility Stroke / Pariluinsun disease
  • Blood Test
  • Urine Test
  • Colonoscopy / Sigmoidoscopy
  • Imaging :- CT , Mr

Bowel Function Test :-

  • Defecography
  • Anorectal Manometry
  • Colorectal Transit Studies
  • 2 – 4 glasses water a day
  • High Fiber Food
  • Eat Fewer Fat foods
  • Canatives eg – Dutcolax

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