Many patients suffer from difficulty in swallowing food and drinking water. Endoscopy is the first test to diagnose the underlying cause. Stricture and cancers are the most common cause. In patients with normal endoscopy, motility disorders need to be ruled out. Motility disease such as achalasia cardia and distal spasm are common causes of dysphagia in patients suffering from dysphagia and normal endoscopy. Esophageal manometry is the gold standard to diagnose such disorders. During esophageal manometry a thin catheter is passed through the nose, after that patient is instructed to swallow small amount of water, and readings of esophageal pressure are taken on the software and diagnosis is obtained.
Constipation is a common clinical problem, and many patients suffer due to improper coordination between rectum and anus. With the new technique of anorectal manometry, this condition can be diagnosed easily. During anorectal manometry a small catheter is placed in rectum through the anus and pressures are measured. In patients with inadequate pressures, treatment can be done through the biofeedback therapy in same sessions. During biofeedback therapy, patients are taught to synchronize the act of defecation with the accurate readings on the computer and the monitor.